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Hire Employees in Egypt — Overview

As the largest Arabic-speaking nation, with a massive labor force, Egypt is a popular expansion destination for companies wishing to expand into both Middle East and Africa. The overall economic picture in Egypt is positive, with the World Bank identifying a “surge in economic activity in 2022”, with expected growth of 5.5 percent — an exceptional achievement in the current global economic environment.

With a high quality higher education system, and an emphasis on the medical sciences and technology, Egypt is a popular location for hiring highly skilled knowledge workers.

Read our Egypt hiring guide to ensure a successful and compliant Egypt hiring experiences.

Facts & Stats


106M (30M labor force)

Capital City


Languages Spoken

Arabic (6th worldwide)


Egyptian Pound (EGP or LE)

GDP per capita


Ease of Doing Business

114th in the world

Minimum Wage

2,400 EGP/Month

Average Wage

9,200 EGP/month

Paid Leave

21 days (after 6 months)

Egypt: Business Environment

Business outlook

Historically, the Egyptian economy has been focused on Cairo, the capital city, but a range of recent government programs have sought to geographically diversify industry and bring prosperity to the 27 governates throughout the country.

Major Egyptian exports include crude and refined petroleum, gold, natural gas and fertilizer. Major imports include wheat, packaged medicine and cars. Key industries in Egypt include food processing, textiles, tourism, pharmaceuticals and construction which have all seen a surge in economic activity recently. The World Bank has forecast that this growth will hit 5.5 percent.

Business regulation in Egypt

Egypt has a civil legal system, derived from the French system with commerce being regulated by highly specified codes. As a majority Muslim country, this legal system is adapted with aspects of Sharia law.

Employment in Egypt is primarily regulated by the Egyptian Labour Law No. 12 of 2003 (the “Labour Law”). This law covers virtually all employment relationships in the country, whether the employer is an individual or entity based in Egypt and regardless of whether they employ local or foreign workers. Matters which are not specifically addressed by the Labour Law are governed by the provisions of the Egyptian Civil Code. Additionally, part of the employment relationship falls under coverage of the Egyptian Social Insurance Law No. 79 of 1975.

Business culture in Egypt

As arguably the oldest nation on the planet, Egyptian culture and business culture more specifically is a blend of the different cultural influences that have come to bear on the country. Some key principles of business culture there include:

  • Networks are valued. While expertise is valued, arguably personal relationships are more important and it is sometimes accepted that rules need to be bent to circumvent business restrictions. 
  • Age and experience matter. This means older people often fill supervisory or leadership positions, and it can be difficult for younger workers to get cut through.
  • Conservative dress.  As a muslim majority nation, it is best to present oneself neatly in conservative clothing.
  • Non-confrontation. Egyptians generally avoid confrontation and rarely say a direct ‘no’, so if they do not respond positively to a proposal it is likely a negative sign.

Recruiting employees in Egypt

Recruiting employees in Egypt — Overview

  • Recruitment in Egypt is similar to recruitment elsewhere around the world, where online search methods should be the priority. Note, however, that there are restrictions on hiring expats/foreigners in Egypt: Under the Companies Law of Egypt only 10% of staff can be foreigners, with salaries not exceeding 20% of total wages. There is an exception for designated  ‘free zones’ where 25% of total employees can be foreigners.
  • For Egypt recruitment support, you might consider using an Egypt recruitment agency.

Most important recruitment tools in Egypt

Popular recruiting and jobs sites in Egypt include:

  • Wuzzuf
    Wuzzuf is the most popular online Jobs Site in Egypt with more than 300,000 job seekers per month. It is also a popular learning site, recommending free, online and in-person courses throughout Egypt.
  • 2. Indeed
    The international job site Indeed is a popular choice in Egypt.
  • 3. Bayt
    Bayt connects North Africa and the Middle east and is the most useful job site when recruiting across those regions.

If you need specialist support for your candidate search in Egypt, you might also consider a specialist recruitment firm. Horizons provides such support to over 185 countries worldwide. Contact us for a free consultation and demo.

Interviewing candidates in Egypt

Interviewing candidates in Egypt — Overview

When interviewing candidates in Egypt it is crucial to remember: 

  • A conservative business culture, formal business dress will be expected of both candidates and interviewers.
  • Where interviewing in person, it is customary for the guest (in this case a candidate) to be offered tea or refreshments, and offense may be taken if this is refused.
  • As a hierarchical culture, respect should always be shown for the oldest and most senior people present in the room. 

Can I ask the candidate’s previous salary in Egypt?

It is permitted to ask the candidate’s salary history in Egypt. Note, however, that the candidate may choose not to respond, or otherwise not wish to answer the question.

What is the typical salary increase at a new job in Egypt?

As in many other countries, new employees would typically expect a 10% increase compared to their prior salary. Note, however, as unemployment is higher in Egypt than in some other countries, candidates may not be able to command the premium that they could elsewhere.

Onboarding employees in Egypt

Onboarding employees in Egypt – Overview

Onboarding employees in Egypt requires gathering the following documents from candidates:

  • A copy of their National ID
  • Social security number
  • Bank account details
  • Any degree or qualification certificates
  • Photos
  • A criminal background/police check 
  • Labor certificate

Once these are provided, we suggest that you review the employment contract, code of conduct, and any essential training to completely your onboarding process. 

Best remote working tools to use in Egypt

Businesses in Egypt use most of the remote work tools that are in use in other countries, including Teams, Zoom and Slack. Note, however, that due to low connectivity, some other apps are popular for messaging including Viber and Pinngle Safe Messenger. 

Holiday season in Egypt — 2023

Egypt has a range of national public holidays that are celebrated annually. In 2023 these holidays are:
Date Holiday name
7 Jan, 2023 Coptic Christmas Day
25 Jan, 2023 Revolution Day January 25
26 Jan, 2023 Day off for Revolution Day January 25
17 Apr, 2023 Spring Festival
22 Apr, 2023 Eid el Fitr (Tentative Date)
23 Apr, 2023 Eid el Fitr Holiday
24 Apr, 2023 Eid el Fitr Holiday
25 Apr, 2023 Sinai Liberation Day
1 May, 2023 Labor Day
28 Jun, 2023 Arafat Day (Tentative Date)
29 Jun, 2023 Eid al-Adha (Tentative Date)
30 Jun, 2023 June 30 Revolution, Eid al-Adha Holiday (Tentative Date)
1 Jul, 2023 Eid al-Adha Holiday (Tentative Date)
20 Jul, 2023 Muharram (Tentative Date)
223 Jul, 2023 Revolution Day July 23
27 Jul, 2023 Day off for Revolution Day July 23
28 Sep, 2023 Prophet Mohamed’s Birthday (Tentative Date)
6 Oct, 2023 Armed Forces Day

What is the typical salary increase employees in Egypt expect?

Currently, workers can expect an increase of at least 9% every 18 months. 


Freelancers are a good choice for Egypt hiring where your needs are short-term or project-based. Where you need fulltime ongoing engagement, it is usually best to hire en employee. You could hire an employee yourself, directly, via a subsidiary. Or you could engage an Egypt Employer of Record solution (more on this below).

Yes, but as outlined above, it is important to be aware of the restrictions on hiring expats or foreigners: Only 10 percent of employees can usually be foreigners.

To set up an Egypt subsidiary, you need to: 

  • Complete a trade name clearance certificate
  • Get certification from an authorized bank
  • Submit all notarized company documents to the Companies Establishment Department
  • Issue notification of incorporation
  • Apply for a commercial registry certificate
  • Register for tax
  • Register all employees with the National Authority of Social Insurance.

You can open a subsidiary using the steps outlined above. Or, you can engage an Employer of Record (EOR) solution in Egypt, to hire staff on your behalf. This is usually a far more efficient and cost-effective mechanism for hiring overseas staff.

Hiring in Egypt, Made Easy

Your business can easily hire employees in Egypt without opening a local entity. We handle local employment law, complex tax regulations, and international payroll in 180+ countries worldwide. All you need to do is focus on your business.

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