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As the largest Arabic-speaking nation, with a massive labor force, Egypt is a popular expansion destination for companies wishing to expand into both Middle East and Africa. The overall economic picture in Egypt is positive, with the World Bank identifying a “surge in economic activity in 2022”, with expected growth of 5.5 percent — an exceptional achievement in the current global economic environment.
With a high quality higher education system, and an emphasis on the medical sciences and technology, Egypt is a popular location for hiring highly skilled knowledge workers.
Read our Egypt hiring guide to ensure a successful and compliant Egypt hiring experiences.
106M (30M labor force)
Arabic (6th worldwide)
Egyptian Pound (EGP or LE)
GDP per capita
Ease of Doing Business
114th in the world
21 days (after 6 months)
Historically, the Egyptian economy has been focused on Cairo, the capital city, but a range of recent government programs have sought to geographically diversify industry and bring prosperity to the 27 governates throughout the country.
Major Egyptian exports include crude and refined petroleum, gold, natural gas and fertilizer. Major imports include wheat, packaged medicine and cars. Key industries in Egypt include food processing, textiles, tourism, pharmaceuticals and construction which have all seen a surge in economic activity recently. The World Bank has forecast that this growth will hit 5.5 percent.
Egypt has a civil legal system, derived from the French system with commerce being regulated by highly specified codes. As a majority Muslim country, this legal system is adapted with aspects of Sharia law.
Employment in Egypt is primarily regulated by the Egyptian Labour Law No. 12 of 2003 (the “Labour Law”). This law covers virtually all employment relationships in the country, whether the employer is an individual or entity based in Egypt and regardless of whether they employ local or foreign workers. Matters which are not specifically addressed by the Labour Law are governed by the provisions of the Egyptian Civil Code. Additionally, part of the employment relationship falls under coverage of the Egyptian Social Insurance Law No. 79 of 1975.
As arguably the oldest nation on the planet, Egyptian culture and business culture more specifically is a blend of the different cultural influences that have come to bear on the country. Some key principles of business culture there include:
Popular recruiting and jobs sites in Egypt include:
If you need specialist support for your candidate search in Egypt, you might also consider a specialist recruitment firm. Horizons provides such support to over 185 countries worldwide. Contact us for a free consultation and demo.
When interviewing candidates in Egypt it is crucial to remember:
It is permitted to ask the candidate’s salary history in Egypt. Note, however, that the candidate may choose not to respond, or otherwise not wish to answer the question.
As in many other countries, new employees would typically expect a 10% increase compared to their prior salary. Note, however, as unemployment is higher in Egypt than in some other countries, candidates may not be able to command the premium that they could elsewhere.
Onboarding employees in Egypt requires gathering the following documents from candidates:
Once these are provided, we suggest that you review the employment contract, code of conduct, and any essential training to completely your onboarding process.
Businesses in Egypt use most of the remote work tools that are in use in other countries, including Teams, Zoom and Slack. Note, however, that due to low connectivity, some other apps are popular for messaging including Viber and Pinngle Safe Messenger.
|7 Jan, 2023||Coptic Christmas Day|
|25 Jan, 2023||Revolution Day January 25|
|26 Jan, 2023||Day off for Revolution Day January 25|
|17 Apr, 2023||Spring Festival|
|22 Apr, 2023||Eid el Fitr (Tentative Date)|
|23 Apr, 2023||Eid el Fitr Holiday|
|24 Apr, 2023||Eid el Fitr Holiday|
|25 Apr, 2023||Sinai Liberation Day|
|1 May, 2023||Labor Day|
|28 Jun, 2023||Arafat Day (Tentative Date)|
|29 Jun, 2023||Eid al-Adha (Tentative Date)|
|30 Jun, 2023||June 30 Revolution, Eid al-Adha Holiday (Tentative Date)|
|1 Jul, 2023||Eid al-Adha Holiday (Tentative Date)|
|20 Jul, 2023||Muharram (Tentative Date)|
|223 Jul, 2023||Revolution Day July 23|
|27 Jul, 2023||Day off for Revolution Day July 23|
|28 Sep, 2023||Prophet Mohamed’s Birthday (Tentative Date)|
|6 Oct, 2023||Armed Forces Day|
Currently, workers can expect an increase of at least 9% every 18 months.
Yes, but as outlined above, it is important to be aware of the restrictions on hiring expats or foreigners: Only 10 percent of employees can usually be foreigners.
To set up an Egypt subsidiary, you need to:
You can open a subsidiary using the steps outlined above. Or, you can engage an Employer of Record (EOR) solution in Egypt, to hire staff on your behalf. This is usually a far more efficient and cost-effective mechanism for hiring overseas staff.
Your business can easily hire employees in Egypt without opening a local entity. We handle local employment law, complex tax regulations, and international payroll in 180+ countries worldwide. All you need to do is focus on your business.